However, the Marlin guns quickly disappeared from U.S. military service after the great success of the .30 Browning machine guns and variants subsequently adopted for air, ground, and shipboard use, with the debut of the M1919 Browning machine gun air-cooled ordnance. Originally adopted by the Austro-Hungarian Army all throughout World War I, the M95 was retained post-war by both the Austrian and Hungarian armies. This required that the gun be unloaded immediately after an extended burst of firing. The gun was originally chambered in 6mm Lee Navy and later, after the adoption of the Krag–Jørgensen rifle, in .30-40 Krag, 7×57mm Mauser caliber (the same cartridge used in the Spanish Model 1893 Mauser), and .30-06 Springfield in 1914. The lever was actuated by the muzzle blast operating upon it. The lever was moved back, and power was supplied by a gas port about six inches (15 cm) back from the muzzle. The M1895 was also sold in 7×57mm Mauser caliber for use by various countries in South America. The M1895 was also sold in 7×57mm Mauser caliber for use by various countries in South America. [17] The Canadian success with the M1895 led to the further use of the gun by the Canadian Army in World War I. Despite these improvements, the Marlin was limited to 500 rounds of continuous fire due to a tendency to overheat. Based on a John Moses Browning design dating to 1889, it was one of the first successful gas operated machine guns to enter service. Colt 1895 machine gun .30-40 Krag. However, the low rate of fire combined with a heavy barrel also allowed the gun to be air-cooled, resulting in a simpler, lighter, and more portable machine gun compared to water-cooled designs. The Navy also purchased a version of the Marlin gun with a gas piston in lieu of the lever mechanism, although very few if any guns saw service aboard ship. The Colt's unusual method of operation had both advantages and disadvantages compared to competing machine gun designs of the day. The 1914 version also included a lower tripod for firing prone; this is likely what led to the gun's nickname of "potato digger", as the operating lever would dig into the ground if it were fired from too low a position. Winston Churchill, then a young Lieutenant in the South African Light Horse and a war correspondent, was impressed by the effect of the fire of a whole battery of these gun. The Colt-Browning M1895, nicknamed potato digger due to its unusual operating mechanism, is an air cooled, belt fed, gas operated machine gun that fires from a closed bolt with a cyclic rate of 450 rounds per minute. Based on a John Browning design dating to 1889, it was the first successful gas-operated machine gun to enter service. As gunners gained experience with operating an air-cooled machine gun, it became apparent that avoiding long continuous periods of fire materially added to the weapon's reliability and barrel life. [1] [2] [1][2][3], Filed for patent in 1892, the M1895's operating mechanism was one of Browning's early patents for automatic rifles;[4][5] he had previously been working on lever action rifles for Winchester such as the Winchester 1886. Joseph H. Alexander, Don Horan, Norman C. Stahl (1999). Original Item: Only One Available. This was the first purchase of an automatic weapon by the U.S. government. The Colt–Browning M1895, nicknamed "potato digger" because of its unusual operating mechanism, is an air-cooled, belt-fed, gas-operated machine gun that fires from a closed bolt with a cyclic rate of 450 rounds per minute. It was mounted on tripods, horse-drawn carriages, boats, aircraft, and even armored cars. Most Marlin M1917 and M1918 guns saw use in aircraft as defensive armament. The primary improvement was the use of a detachable barrel, a more generous side plate cut-out and a sliding door on the right side plate opening (also made larger) for easier access. The lever-operated repeating action gave the weapon a relatively slow rate of fire (less than 400 rounds a minute). Share. As Col. Roosevelt noted, "These Colt automatic guns were not, on the whole, very successful...they proved more delicate than the Gatlings, and very readily got out of order. The US Navy was the first to begin testing, as early as 1893, with a version chambered in the Navy's 6mm cartridge.[8][9]. Articles incorporating text from Wikipedia, M1909 Benet-Mercie (Hotchkiss) machine-rifle, http://world.guns.ru/machine/usa/colt-browning-m195-e.html, http://funarg.nfshost.com/r2/notes/browning-patents.html, http://browningmgs.com/Images_1919A4/Brownings.htm, "Hidden in Plain Sight: Colt Automatics at Santiago", http://www.rememuseum.org.uk/arms/machguns/armmg1.htm#124, Profile of M1895 usage in Spanish-American War, Marlin M1917 version of the M1895, in World War I service, Video of M1895 machine gun firing demonstration, https://military.wikia.org/wiki/M1895_Colt-Browning_machine_gun?oldid=3817045. The M1895 is the first machine gun adopted by the United States military, and it saw service with the Army (who never formally adopted it), and the US Navy/US Marines, and was adapted to use in many roles. Weapons similar to or like M1895 Colt–Browning machine gun. The M1895 uses a unique operating mechanism, which is quite similar to that of a lever-action rifle. The M1895/14 Colt-Browning saw use in France by some Canadian infantry formations. Many of these guns were also used in the Polish–Soviet War of 1920. It was mounted on tripods, horse drawn carriages, boats, aircraft, and even armored cars. The earliest prototype developed by Browning in early 1889 was a .44 caliber black powder cartridge rifle, weighing under 12 pounds. The US Army, while never formally adopting the M1895, purchased 2 guns in 1902, followed by an additional purchase of 140 guns in 1904. To minimize heating during rapid fire, the gun used a very heavy straight contour barrel (finned for ventilation on later variants), bringing its weight up to 35 pounds (15.87 kg); the standard tripod mount with seat for the gunner added another 56 pounds (25.4 kg). The M1895 was the first machine gun adopted by the United States military, and it saw service with the Army (who never formally adopted it), and the US Navy/US Marines, and was adapted to use in many roles. A second, much more radical version of the M1895 was introduced in 1917 for tank and aircraft use, later designated the Marlin M1917 and M1918. To minimize heating during rapid fire, the gun used a very heavy straight contour barrel (finned for ventilation on later variants), bringing its weight up to 35 pounds; the standard tripod mount with seat for the gunner, added another 56 pounds. From out of this mix came the Steyr Mannlicher M1895 rifle. The Colt-Browning M1895, nicknamed potato digger due to its unusual operating mechanism, is an air-cooled, belt-fed, gas-operated machine gun that fires from a closed bolt with a cyclic rate of 450 rounds per minute. The Marlin gun would see postwar use on the machine gun version of US Army's M1917 Tank, an American version of the French Renault FT. Had the war progressed into 1919 the Marlin would have been the primary U.S. tank and aircraft gun. The M1895 was made for export as well; the Russians ordered several thousand M1895 machine guns in 1914 in 7.62×54mmR caliber for use in World War I. Based on a John Browning design dating to 1889, it was the first successful gas-operated machine gun to enter service. The M1895 was also used by various U.S. state militia and guard units, including the Colorado national guard. In 1914, an emplaced "digger" of one of these private militias fired extensively into a miner camp in Ludlow, Colorado, an event later termed the Ludlow Massacre. The US Navy was the first to begin testing, as early as 1893, with a version chambered in the Navy's 6mm cartridge. It was mounted on tripods, horse-drawn carriages, boats, aircraft, and even armored cars. Colt-Browning guns placed in storage by the US military after the first world war were purchased for the British Home Guard in the summer of 1940. 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